Is it possible to fix (link) a filter to a results collection (stored query)?

because when I select a filter, I sometimes forget to choose the associated results collection (stored query)

If you're using a filter then Tools > Find Files is what you're presumably using. A stored query wouldn't normally be involved at the same time, since those only apply to the Windows Search field at the top-right of the window.

(Not all File Collections are Stored Queries. Stored queries remember Windows Search strings/queries and can re-apply them, performing the same search again, when you go into special collections which they generated. But collections in general, like those produced by Tools > Find Files rather than Windows Search, are just lists of files and folders.)

You can make a button or hotkey which runs the Find tool with a specified filter and outputs the results to a specified collection, if that's the aim.

There isn't a way to make selecting a filter in the Find UI also change which collection the results go to in the same UI; those are two independent things.